Open and closed hydraulic systems

Open and closed hydraulic systems

Hydraulic system can be divided into two basic circuits:

  • Open circuit;
  • Closed circuit.

For more information about Hydraulics browsing Hydraulic Basics is to a click distance-link.

Hydraulic simple open circuit

In hydraulic open circuit, the returning oil is directed to the reservoir from which the hydraulic pump suction the oil. The surface of the fluid in the reservoir is in contact with atmospheric pressure which mean that the surface is not enclosed.

The open circuit is the standard circuit used in many industrial and mobile applications. Examples range from machine tools and press drives to winch and mobile drives.

Hydraulic simple close circuit

I am more familiar with this hydraulic close system, because my experience in deck cranes, different kind of deck winches and LARS system use close system.

In hydraulic closed system pump takes its oil directly from return line. The pump practically is fed back from the actuator. Therefore, return pipe and suction pipe are the same.

Pumps have high and low pressure sides and these change depending on the direction of the load.The pressure is limited on the high pressure side via pressure relief valves, which unload the low pressure side. The fluid remains in the circuit. As a result of the expansion of pipes under pressure and internal leakage from the pumps and motors need to be added a component in the circuit. A feed or booster pump suction oil from a common reservoir and supplies to close circuit.

Therefore the low-pressure side being replenished the hydraulic pump enables higher operation features to be obtained.

Open and closed hydraulic systems
  • Hydraulic system divided in open and close circuit;
  • In open circuit, returning oil is directed to the reservoir from which the hydraulic pump suction the oil;
  • In close circuit return pipe and suction pipe are the same.

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