What is hydraulic system?
Through this page I tried to make a short description about hydraulic system although the subject is well known. If google it sure it will be found some good information about hydraulics.
Even though the hydraulic subject is widely know I will show more deeply information from sources where I learned and understand this topic.
The principles of hydraulics were been in use in early times, in converting the energy of flowing water into useful mechanical energy by means of a water wheel. The time passed and hydraulics kept on developing. Were discovered more and more efficient ways of converting hydraulic energy into useful work.
So… what is hydraulic system? Is a system comprised of a set of devices which produce and directs an energy in the form of force by means of fluid to the hydraulic actuator which convert into a mechanical energy. A hydraulic device is a device which can be used to convey energy (in the form of force) by means of a liquid.
A simple example is the one commonly used for cars when operate the brakes. The small piston in the main brake cylinder is exercises a pressure on the large piston of the brake cylinder on each wheel. This pressure is distributed equally in all direction as per Pascal Law, so because of that all the brakes of each wheel are applied evenly.
Another simple application is hydraulic jack which is a piston-type hand pump. The hand pump contains a cylinder for up and down movement. When the handle is operated up and down a specific volume of oil is discharge from the pump to lift the load cylinder to a given distance against its load resistance. This hydraulic system can be used for lifting heavy loads, compressing straw into bales, extraction of oil from different seeds and other industrial applications.
The application of pressure at any points on a liquid in a full, close container will be transmitted undiminished to all the surfaces in contact with that liquid, and the force will be equal at all surfaces provided that there is no flow. According to Pascal, the pressure on the liquid will be distributed in all directions of the reservoir.
The pressure in the reservoir is the same everywhere, or the same force is acting every cm²
The pressure can be calculated as follow:
p =F/A where:
- p = pressure (psi)
- F = force (pound)
- A = aria (square inch)